Research Papers

ICCT Research Papers series includes the Centre’s academic research papers that offer in-depth research on a topic, theme or issue related to counter-terrorism. All publications have been peer-reviewed by ICCT’s Editorial Board and reflect the high standards of the Centre that focus on original and independent research and analysis.

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Policy Briefs

ICCT Policy Briefs series reflects one of the core tasks of the Centre, namely exchanging knowledge and experiences with policymakers. Within these series, the aim is to provide a general overview of a certain topic, offering background information and policy recommendations. All Policy Briefs have been peer-reviewed by the Editorial Board prior to publication.

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ICCT Reports offer reflections of Meetings, Events and Projects. Reports offer the possibility of looking into ICCT meetings and events, and/or full reports on research and projects.

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ICCT Perspectives are Commentaries and Op-Eds, mainly written by Research Fellows. Perspectives respond to or analyse timely topics. The aim is to offer background and a deeper understanding for a wide public. Perspectives are the author’s own views.

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Research Paper | 28 Mar 2017
Can a Copycat Effect be Observed in Terrorist Suicide Attacks?

Nicholas Farnham and Dr. Marieke Liem look at how a copycat effect – established within the field of suicide studies – may manifest itself in terrorist suicide attacks, and take an exploratory approach in evaluating the prospect of incorporating open-data resources in future counter-terrorism research.

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Report | 20 Mar 2017
The European Union’s Policies on Counter-Terrorism: Relevance, Coherence and Effectiveness

This new study commissioned by the Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs Committee of the European Parliament, and produced by PwC and the International Centre for Counter-Terrorism – The Hague (ICCT), analyses the coherence and effectiveness of the European Union’s counter-terrorism policy.

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Perspective | 17 Mar 2017
IS Propaganda: Should We Counter the Narrative?

In this latest ICCT Perspective, Acting Director Dr. Alastair Reed looks at the use of counter-narratives in relation to IS propaganda and underlines the inadequacy of such a simplistic response.

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Perspective | 13 Mar 2017
The Use of Deportation in Counter-Terrorism: Insights from the Italian Case

In his latest Perspective, ICCT Visiting Fellow Francesco Marone discusses the specificities of Italy's use of administrative deportation of foreign citizens as a counter-terrorism policy.

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Report | 9 Mar 2017
Mental Health and the Foreign Fighter Phenomenon: A Case Study from the Netherlands

This seminar report by Christophe Paulussen, Janne Nijman and Karlien Lismont explores the suggested link between radicalisation, the foreign fighter phenomenon, terrorism and mental health problems, taking the situation in the Netherlands as a case study.

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Perspective | 7 Mar 2017
The Trump Immigration Ban: Does it Make America Safer?

In his latest Perspective, ICCT Visiting Fellow Phil Gurski looks at Trump's immigration ban and discusses the reasons why it is unlikely to make the US safer.

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Perspective | 27 Feb 2017
Disentangling the EU Foreign Fighter Threat: the Case for a Comprehensive Approach

Islamic extremists returning from fighting in Iraq and Syria pose a massive problem for European policymakers. But there are no quick fixes, argue Dr. Alastair Reed and Johanna Pohl in an article originally published as part of the RUSI Newsbrief Series.

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Research Paper | 27 Feb 2017
War by Suicide: A Statistical Analysis of the Islamic State’s Martyrdom Industry

This Research Paper from ICCT Associate Fellow Charlie Winter explores IS’s use of suicide tactics over the course of 12 months – from 1 December 2015 to 30 November 2016 – and, through statistical evaluation, demonstrates its attacks are now primarily perpetrated by local operatives against military targets, marking a new phase of operationalisation for suicide warfare.

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Research Paper | 15 Feb 2017
Public Opinion Survey Data to Measure Sympathy and Support for Islamist Terrorism: A Look at Muslim Opinions on Al Qaeda and IS

ICCT Research Fellow Dr. Alex P. Schmid's latest Research Paper explores what ‘sympathy’ and ‘support’ actually mean when it comes to jihadist terrorism and concludes that better instruments for measuring such sympathy and support are needed to inform counter-terrorist strategies.

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Perspective | 7 Feb 2017
Should the FARC be on the EU List of Designated Terrorist Organisations?

Perspectives written by two students of the Terrorism and Counterterrorism course at Leiden University argue the case for and against the FARC being on the EU list of designated terrorist organisations.

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Research Paper | 30 Jan 2017
Sketch of a Social Ecology Model for Explaining Homegrown Terrorist Radicalisation

In this Research Note, Dr. Lorne L. Dawson argues the merits of adopting an ecological approach to organising and extending our grasp of the social and social psychological factors influencing the career of potential jihadists.

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Perspective | 20 Jan 2017
Why “Amnesty” Should Not Be Considered for Returning Foreign Fighters: A Response to Wells and Gurski

Responding to earlier Perspectives by Wells and Gurski, ICCT Programme Manager Eva Entenmann makes the case against offering plea-bargaining to returning foreign fighters and for more long-term and individualised approaches aimed at reintegration back into society.

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Perspective | 10 Jan 2017
Suicide Tactics and the Islamic State

In this Perspective, ICCT Associate Fellow Charlie Winter discusses IS's use of suicide tactics and looks in some detail at the group’s three main suicide modi operandi: vehicle-borne IEDs, inghimas operations and human-borne IEDs.

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Report | 19 Dec 2016
Foreign Terrorist Fighters: Trends, Dynamics and Policy Responses

This Report, which was developed for the Global Counterterrorism Forum's Foreign Terrorist Fighters Working Group, takes stock of the current trends and dynamics related to the foreign terrorist fighter phenomenon and identifies some of the gaps that still need to be addressed.

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Research Paper | 16 Dec 2016
Administrative Measures against Foreign Fighters: In Search of Limits and Safeguards

This Research Paper analyses the increasing use of administrative measures in counter-terrorism and, based on a review of their use in the United Kingdom, France, and the Netherlands, and after identifying where their use might be justified and the impact of their use on the protection of human rights, concludes by recommending the establishment of appropriate limits and safeguards.

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Perspective | 15 Dec 2016
Why We Cannot Profile Those Who Radicalise to Violence

In this Perspective, ICCT Visiting Fellow Phil Gurski compares violent extremists in Scandinavia to those in Canada and, noticing a divergence, discusses the implications for policy makers in dealing with violent extremism.

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Perspective | 13 Dec 2016
Crime and Terror in Europe: Where the Nexus is Alive and Well

ICCT Associate Fellow, Colin Clarke, discusses the “crime-terror nexus” in Europe and examines how the problems of cooperation against terrorism across Europe and the rise of populism and nationalism may impact our ability to tackle this nexus.

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Report | 12 Dec 2016
Rehabilitating Juvenile Violent Extremist Offenders in Detention

Developed for the Global Counterterrorism Forum’s Detention and Reintegration Working Group, this paper puts forth guiding principles, recommendations, and considerations for the detention, rehabilitation, and reintegration of juveniles convicted of terrorism and violent extremism-related crimes in a manner that upholds the principles and safeguards of juvenile justice.

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Perspective | 6 Dec 2016
Promises of Paradise: IS Propaganda towards Women

In this Perspective, Louisa Tarras-Wahlberg discusses the seven clear promises delivered to women in official IS propaganda - promises that paint a picture of a young nation state resembling a paradise on earth - and argues that affected European states need to counter IS paradisiac claims while providing better opportunities for young women at home.

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Perspective | 29 Nov 2016
“How to Slaughter the Disbelievers”: Insights into IS’ Instructional Video

As so-called Islamic State (IS) suffers devastating losses of land, personnel and resources across Iraq and Syria, it may seem that its end is near. ICCT Visiting Fellow Haroro Ingram argues to the contrary, explaining how IS’ recent video “You must fight them o muwahhid” offers yet another indicator that the group is again strategically transitioning.

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Perspective | 25 Nov 2016
Could Repatriating Foreign Fighters Make Europe Safer?

This Perspective by David Wells discusses the benefits of a foreign fighter plea bargain as a policy option that proactively reduces the threat through ensuring immediate incarceration of returning foreign fighters.

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Policy Brief | 22 Nov 2016
A “Linkage-Based” Approach to Combating Militant Islamist Propaganda: A Two-Tiered Framework for Practitioners

This Policy Brief outlines a “linkage-based” approach to combating militant Islamist propaganda tailored for practitioners in order to help them synchronise campaign planning and message design.

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Research Paper | 15 Nov 2016
Lighting the Path: the Evolution of the Islamic State Media Enterprise (2003-2016)

This Research Paper develops a history of so-called Islamic State’s media department by examining primary documents and other media throughout its existence. Based on this history, six observations are made aimed at helping in the efforts to combat IS and its inevitable future imitators.

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Perspective | 10 Nov 2016
What Does the Trump Presidency Mean for the “War on Terrorism”?

Visiting Fellow Phil Gurski discusses potential consequences of the election of Donald Trump as US president, focusing specifically on what his election means for counter-terrorism and US strategic interests abroad.

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Research Paper | 7 Nov 2016
Repressing the Foreign Fighters Phenomenon in Western Europe: Towards an Effective Response Based on Human Rights

This Research Paper explores the repression of the foreign fighters phenomenon and terrorism more generally in Western Europe and argues that only a response based on human rights will be effective in countering this global problem in the long run.

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Perspective | 4 Nov 2016
Should Governments Offer Amnesty to Returning Foreign Fighters?

Visiting Fellow Phil Gurski discusses three challenges in offering amnesty to returning foreign fighters: determining the true intent of returnees, determining what acts they were involved in, and dealing with the public reaction.

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Perspective | 25 Oct 2016
Managing Risk in the Fight Against IS

As the battle for Mosul rages, the West faces a key turning point in the struggle against the so-called Islamic State (IS). The strategic choices made in the coming months to counter the risk posed by IS are likely to have ramifications that will be felt – good or bad – for years to come. As such it is an apt time to reflect on the lessons learned from past mistakes.

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Perspective | 20 Oct 2016
How Islamophobia Makes Us Less Safe

In this Perspective, ICCT Visiting Fellow Phil Gurski argues that Islamophobia is a type of ignorance and prejudice, a fear of the Other, against which we must fight in the interests of national security.

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Report | 17 Oct 2016
Towards a European Position on the Use of Armed Drones? A Human Rights Approach

This report examines targeted killings in light of human rights law; the precise requirements of transparency, oversight and accountability; and European countries’ human rights obligations when assisting other countries in drone strikes.

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Report | 11 Oct 2016
Foreign Fighters in Their Own Words: Using YouTube as a Source

Analysing YouTube videos, Kim Mans and Reuben Tuitel provide new insight into the phenomenon of foreign fighters, answering basic questions such as: ‘who are these foreign fighters?’, ‘why do these foreign fighters travel to Syria?’ and ‘where will they go next when the fight is over?’, and thereby adding to so-called thick descriptions in foreign fighter research.

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Perspective | 10 Oct 2016
Rumiyah, Issue 2 (English): Rallying the “True Believers” as Hardship Purifies the Ranks

At least for the moment, it seems Rumiyah is part of a contracting Islamic State (IS) propaganda campaign characterised by telling shifts in key messaging themes. In this analysis of Rumiyah’s second issue, Haroro J. Ingram argues that these trends reflect important changes in IS’s propaganda strategy.

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Perspective | 7 Oct 2016
The EU’s ‘Security Union’: A Bridge Too Far?

In this Perspective, Wittendorp examines issues surrounding the EU's and specifically the Commission's new ‘Security Union’: what is the broader context in which it emerged, what are the assumptions informing it, and what trouble might lie ahead?

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Perspective | 5 Oct 2016
Bangladesh: Islamic State Province or Battlefield of Words?

While the increasing influence of Islamic State in Bangladesh has attracted global attention, this Perspective looks at the agendas of various actors implicated in recent attacks.

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Research Paper | 30 Sep 2016
Deciphering the Siren Call of Militant Islamist Propaganda: Meaning, Credibility & Behavioural Change

This Research Paper analyses how strategies of meaning, credibility and behavioural change are deployed in militant Islamist propaganda and concludes by outlining crucial lessons for understanding both the siren call of militant Islamist propaganda and counterterrorism strategic communications design.

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Perspective | 28 Sep 2016
Italy’s Jihadists in Syria: The Case of Maria Giulia Sergio (“Lady Jihad”)

Examining the case study of one Italian woman who travelled to Syria, Dr. Marone sheds light on some of the particularities concerning Italy’s jihadists, including the relevance of foreign recruitment networks operating within the country and the prevalence of individual pathways of radicalisation over group mechanisms.

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Perspective | 26 Sep 2016
The Use and Abuse of Administrative Measures against FTFs in France

In this Perspective, Dr. Boutin argues that, while there can be valid reasons to apply so-called 'administrative measures' to foreign terrorist fighters (FTFs) in France and elsewhere, it is essential for policy makers to give further consideration to issues of human rights in the application of such measures.

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Research Paper | 16 Sep 2016
The Turner Legacy: The Storied Origins and Enduring Impact of White Nationalism’s Deadly Bible

The Turner Diaries, the infamous racist dystopian novel by neo-Nazi William Luther Pierce, has inspired more than 200 murders since its publication in 1978. This paper documents the books that directly and indirectly inspired Turner and examines the extensive violence that the novel has inspired.

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Perspective | 12 Sep 2016
Juvenile Violent Extremist Offenders: Peer Pressure or Seasoned Soldiers?

As governments devise ways to address the issue of foreign fighters and terrorism at home and abroad, the phenomenon of juvenile violent extremist offenders is becoming increasingly important and the question of what to do with them once they are apprehended more and more pertinent.

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Report | 6 Sep 2016
ICCT Research Report NATO Project: Transitioning from Military Interventions to Long-Term Counter-Terrorism Policy

This NATO research project focused on assessing how military interventions can best prepare the ground for an effective long term counter-terrorism policy, looking at the interventions in Libya, Afghanistan and Mali.

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Research Paper | 23 Aug 2016
Italy’s Jihadists in the Syrian Civil War

This exploratory ICCT Research Paper examines the current extent of Italy’s foreign fighters in Syria through four case studies.

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Policy Brief | 17 Aug 2016
Promoting Disengagement from Violent Extremism

This Policy Brief lays out a multi-tiered framework for counter-terrorism strategic communications programmes and concrete evaluation of programme results.

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Perspective | 12 Aug 2016
More Than “Jihadi Brides” and “Eye Candy”: How Dabiq Appeals to Western Women

Kiriloi M. Ingram argues for a more nuanced understanding of IS’s appeal to Western women, in particular of the five categories of female archetypes into which IS tend to group women.

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Perspective | 8 Aug 2016
Egypt’s Aviation Security since the Metrojet Bombing

Nine months after the downing of the Russian A321 civilian aircraft, Metrojet flight 9268, in the Sinai Peninsula, Egyptian authorities still need to address the challenges relating to the vulnerability of airport facilities and to managing the fear of the traveling public.

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Perspective | 4 Aug 2016
Dabiq, Issue 15: A Call to Islamic State’s Enemies as the Caliphate Crumbles

The latest issue of Dabiq celebrates a summer of terror in the West, speaks directly to Islamic State’s (IS) “crusader” enemies with a mix of condemnations and ultimatums, and is filled with appeals to converts. But what Dabiq’s latest issue doesn’t say is just as telling.

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Perspective | 1 Aug 2016
How (not) to Manage Fear after Terrorist Attacks

Addressing recent attacks in Germany, Chancellor Angela Merkel was widely criticised for repeating her mantra ‘we can do this’, facing a population increasingly worried by Islamist terrorism. This Perspective analyses the tension between fear management and polarisation, challenging existing assumptions on how to communicate to citizens after terrorist attacks.

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Perspective | 28 Jul 2016
Jabhat al Nusra Splits From al Qaeda

After years of rumours, Syrian jihadist group Jabhat al Nusra is expected to sever its longstanding affiliation with al Qaeda at any moment. ICCT Associate Fellow J.M. Berger analyses the implications of the impending split on the future evolution of jihadist ideology and strategy.

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Perspective | 20 Jul 2016
The Nice Attack and the Limits of Security Responses

In this Op-Ed, ICCT Research Fellow Bibi van Ginkel compares the profile of the perpetrator of the Nice Attacks to existing research on Foreign Fighters, pointing to the limits of the security-centered approach France has adopted.

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Perspective | 21 Jun 2016
The CTSC Project in the Media

ICCT Fellows and Associates have written articles, op-eds and interviews on the topic of Counter-Terrorism Strategic Communications:

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Policy Brief | 20 Jun 2016
Lessons from History for Counter-Terrorism Strategic Communications

As part of the Counter-Terrorism Strategic Communications Project, this Policy Brief lays out key policy-relevant lessons for developing effective counter-terrorism strategic communications.

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Policy Brief | 17 Jun 2016
Converts and Islamist Terrorism: An Introduction

This Policy Brief provides an overview of what is known about converts’ involvement in homegrown jihadism and the foreign fighter phenomenon, analysing data from various Western countries.

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Research Paper | 1 Jun 2016
A Brief History of Propaganda During Conflict

This Research Paper explores the history of propaganda during conflict and draws out key lessons for improving counter-terrorism strategic communications.

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Research Paper | 26 May 2016
Making CVE Work: A Focused Approach Based on Process Disruption

This Research Paper develops a narrow approach to Countering Violent Extremism (CVE), focusing on disengagement and the disruption of recruitment.

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Research Paper | 18 May 2016
Links between Terrorism and Migration: An Exploration

This Research Paper explores and questions some assumed causal links between terrorism on the one hand and (forced and irregular) migration on the other. It also offers recommendations that can go some way towards disentangling the issues of (refugee) migration and terrorism.

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Policy Brief | 10 May 2016
Al Qaeda in the Indian Subcontinent: A New Frontline in the Global Jihadist Movement?

This Policy Brief sheds light on and increases understanding of al-Qaeda Central's (AQC) latest affiliate al-Qaeda in the Indian Subcontinent (AQIS).

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Perspective | 10 May 2016
Countering Violent Extremism in the Kurdistan Region in Iraq

Now that the Islamic State appears to be losing ground, and the most imminent threat for the Kurdistan Region in Iraq seems to be over, the time has come for the Kurdistan Regional Government to develop a plan to counter violent extremism.

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Policy Brief | 9 May 2016
Prosecuting Foreign Terrorist Fighters: What Role for the Military?

This policy brief focusses on the difficulties of prosecuting Foreign Terorrist Fighters, and the role that the military can play in assisting prosecutors in collecting evidence and arresting suspects in countries of destination.

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Report | 2 May 2016
Understanding Lone Wolves: Towards a Theoretical Framework for Comparative Analysis

This report outlines a comparative theoretical framework of lone actor terrorists and related non-terrorist lone actor phenomena, with the aim of enabling policy transfer with regard to detection, prevention and treatment.

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Report | 28 Apr 2016
Toolkit for Mental Health Experts and Social Workers in Dealing with Lone-Actor Terrorism

This paper presents three sets of recommendations offering guidance for mental health practitioners and social workers to prevent lone actor terrorism by sharing information, fostering engagement and awareness and a multi-agency approach.

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Perspective | 22 Apr 2016
Breivik’s Life-Long Battle for Attention

ICCT's Research Fellows Liesbeth van der Heide and Daan Weggemans offer their insights on Anders Behring Breivik's quest for lifelong attention, following his court case victory against the Norwegian government.

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Report | 15 Apr 2016
Transitioning From Military Interventions to Long-Term Counter-Terrorism Policy

Analysing the cases of Libya, Afghanistan and Mali, these three Reports assess how military interventions can best prepare the ground for an effective long-term counter-terrorism policy.

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Research Paper | 14 Apr 2016
Salafi Jihadist Violence in Egypt’s North Sinai: From Local Insurgency to Islamic State Province

This Research Paper analyses the development of militancy in Egypt's North Sinai governorate, focusing in particular on Ansar Bayt al Maqdis/Wilayat Sinai and how it has changed from the 2011 uprising to the present day.

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Research Paper | 1 Apr 2016
The Foreign Fighters Phenomenon in the EU – Profiles, Threats & Policies

In this Report commissioned by the Netherlands National Coordinator for Security and Counterterrorism (NCTV), ICCT analyses the numbers and characteristics of foreign fighters, how the EU and Member States assess the threat as well as their policy responses regarding security, preventive and legislative measures.

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Research Paper | 31 Mar 2016
The Islamic State’s Global Propaganda Strategy

This Research Paper aims to analyse in depth the global propaganda strategy of the so-called “Islamic State” by looking at the methods through which this grand strategy is carried out as well as its objectives.

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Report | 29 Feb 2016
Personal Characteristics of Lone-Actor Terrorists

This Research Project Report analyses personal variables of perpetrators of lone actor terrorism, resulting in a number of policy recommendations. It is the fifth publication in the Countering Lone-Actor Terrorism (CLAT) project.

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Report | 29 Jan 2016
Countering Violent Extremism and Terrorism in Tunisia

Report on the workshop on effective implementation of UN Security Council Resolutions 1624 (2005) and 2178 (2014) that took place in Tunisia in November 2015. This workshop was convened by ICCT, UN CTED and HSC.

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Research Paper | 28 Jan 2016
Beneath the Apparent State of Affairs: Stability in Ghana and Benin

In this Clingendael paper, ICCT Fellows Knoope and Chauzal explore how Ghana and Benin are dealing with politics, identity and societal stress, in response to the Sahel crisis and regionalisation of Boko Haram.

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Policy Brief | 19 Jan 2016
Rehabilitation for Foreign Fighters? Relevance, Challenges and Opportunities for the Criminal Justice Sector

This Policy Brief aims to inform the current debate on integrating rehabilitation into the overall approach to foreign fighters by highlighting the challenges and opportunities within the criminal justice sector response.

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Research Paper | 23 Dec 2015
Foreign (Terrorist) Fighters with IS: A European Perspective

In this Research Paper, ICCT Research Fellow Dr. Alex P. Schmid analyses the widely diverging foreign fighter estimates. Having identified push and pull as well as resilience factors that facilitate or inhibit young Muslims joining ISIS, he argues that stopping them from departing to Syria is not enough; political solutions have to be sought.

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Report | 27 Nov 2015
Report: NATO Workshop on Violent Extremism in Central Asia

New Report: On 2 and 3 September 2015, the International Centre for Counter-Terrorism – The Hague (ICCT) and the Center for Security Programs (CSP) in Astana convened a NATO Advanced Research Workshop titled 'Violent Extremism in Central Asia: Indicators, Trends and Possible Responses', with support of the NATO Science for Peace and Security Programme. The main aim of the workshop was to identify to what extent radicalisation and violent extremism are on the rise in the region, what can and should be done about it and how actors can advance on a countering violent extremism (CVE) agenda in the future.

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Report | 27 Nov 2015
Report: NATO Workshop on Counter-Terrorism in the MENA Region

New Report: From 6 to 7 October 2015, the International Centre for Counter-Terrorism (ICCT), Al-Ahram Center for Political and Strategic Studies (ACPSS) and Netherlands Institute of International Relations ‘Clingendael’ convened a NATO Advanced Research Workshop in Brussels. This workshop was titled ‘(Counter-)terrorism in the post-Arab Spring context’ and supported by the NATO Science for Peace and Security Programme.

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Policy Brief | 20 Nov 2015
Paris: 11/13/15 – Analysis and Policy Options

In this Policy Brief, experts of ICCT and Clingendael shed light on some of the pressing questions that currently take central stage in the debates following the Paris attacks.

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Perspective | 18 Nov 2015
So What Does IS Want Us to Do Next…?

In this Op-Ed, ICCT Research Fellow Dr. Alastair Reed outlines three potential responses that the so-called "Islamic State" may want to provoke with the Paris attacks.

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Perspective | 14 Nov 2015
Mumbai-Style Attacks in Paris

Once more, after the attacks on Charlie Hebdo and a Jewish supermarket in January, Paris has been shaken by a series of terrorist attacks. Contrary to the events earlier this year, the 13 November events were much more complex and coordinated, reminding us of the Mumbai 2008 attacks.

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Perspective | 10 Nov 2015
What Next for the Sinai?

In this Op-Ed, ICCT Director Mark Singleton elaborates on how to read into the assumed bombing of the Russian Metrojet 9628 flight by the Sinai franchise of the so-called "Islamic State" on 31 October 2015.

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Research Paper | 10 Nov 2015
Jihadist Foreign Fighter Phenomenon in Western Europe: A Low-Probability, High-Impact Threat

In this Research Paper, Prof. Dr. Edwin Bakker and Jeanine de Roy van Zuijdewijn explore the threat that returning foreign fighters may pose to Western societies. By analysing four distinct areas where the impact of this phenomenon is most visible, the authors determine the extent of the threat in physical, political and social terms.

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Policy Brief | 27 Oct 2015
Foreign (Terrorist) Fighter Estimates: Conceptual and Data Issues

In this Policy Brief, Dr. Alex P. Schmid discusses various definitions of Foreign Terrorist Fighters (FTFs) by disaggregating the “foreign”, “terrorist” and “fighters” elements of the UN Security Council definition in resolution 2178 (2014). Subsequently, an attempt is made to bring structure to the widely diverging estimates of the numbers of foreign fighters and their origins.

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Policy Brief | 26 Oct 2015
Reintegrating Violent Extremist Offenders: Policy Questions and Lessons Learned

In this article published in the framework of George Washington University's Program on Extremism, ICCT Research Fellow Dr. Tinka Veldhuis discusses rehabilitation and reintegration programmes for violent extremist offenders.

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Research Paper | 19 Oct 2015
Fickle Foreign Fighters? A Cross-Case Analysis of Seven Muslim Foreign Fighter Mobilisations (1980-2015)

In this Research Paper, Dr. Isabelle Duyvesteyn and Bram Peeters study seven conflicts that in the past 35 years have triggered Muslims worldwide to leave their home country and become a so-called foreign fighter.

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Research Paper | 1 Sep 2015
Operation ‘Serval’: A Strategic Analysis of the French Intervention in Mali, 2013–2014

In this Article published by Leiden University's Centre for Terrorism and Counterterrorism, ICCT Research Fellow Sergei Boeke and Bart Schuurman discuss the French military intervention in Mali, launched in 2013.

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Policy Brief | 27 Jul 2015
Motives and Considerations of Potential Foreign Fighters from the Netherlands

In this Policy Brief, Prof. Dr. Edwin Bakker and Peter Grol studied several cases of potential foreign fighters. These observations form the basis of policy suggestions that could contribute to the prevention policy within the framework of the “Comprehensive Action Programme to Combat Jihadism” of the Dutch government.

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Research Paper | 1 Jul 2015
Identifying foreign terrorist fighters: The Role of Public-Private Partnership, Information Sharing and Financial Intelligence

In this Research Paper, Visiting Research Fellow Tom Keatinge asks what barriers exist to greater partnership and information sharing between the security authorities and the financial-services industry in tackling terrorism.

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Research Paper | 4 Jun 2015
Challenging the Narrative of the “Islamic State”

Dr. Alex Schmid identifies a dozen narrative themes of ISIS and discusses them from different angles in an attempt to show vulnerabilities and point the way towards developing convincing counter-arguments.

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Perspective | 26 May 2015
Austria’s Reformed Law on Islam – a Model for Europe?

In this Commentary, Dr. Alex Schmid discusses the recently passed reformed law on Islam in Austria and the possibilities these reforms give for developing a so-called "European Islam".

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Research Paper | 26 May 2015
The Role of the Military in Securing Suspects and Evidence in the Prosecution of Terrorism Cases before Civilian Courts: Legal and Practical Challenges

In this Research Paper, by Dr. Bibi van Ginkel and Dr. Christophe Paulussen, the role of the military when performing law enforcement activities in terms of collecting evidence and/or securing suspected terrorists is analysed.

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Policy Brief | 26 May 2015
Pathways of Foreign Fighters: Policy Options and Their (Un)Intended Consequences

In this Policy Brief, Dr. Alastair Reed, Jeanine de Roy van Zuijdewijn and Prof. Dr. Edwin Bakker look at the different pathways foreign fighters could take once they have arrived in Syria or Iraq.

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Policy Brief | 26 May 2015
European Female Jihadists in Syria: Exploring an Under-Researched Topic

The number of young Western women travelling abroad to join the "Islamic State" (IS) continues to increase. However, little is known about these women, including their motivations and roles within organisations such as IS. This Background Note provides preliminary answers and explain what is known so far.

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Research Paper | 30 Apr 2015
Towards a European Position on Armed Drones and Targeted Killing: Surveying EU Counter-Terrorism Perspectives

In this Research Paper, Jessica Dorsey and Dr. Christophe Paulussen gauge the extent to which European Union Member States share the position of the United States on armed drones and targeted killings.

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Perspective | 21 Apr 2015
Responding to Foreign Fighters: A Quick Overview for People with Little Time

In this Commentary Dr. Christophe Paulussen gives a quick snap-shot of the foreign fighters phenomenon, which is a complex and multi-faceted issue.

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Research Paper | 31 Mar 2015
Responding to Cyber Jihad: Towards an Effective Counter Narrative

Research Fellow Dr. Bibi van Ginkel analyses the role of the internet and social media in processes of radicalisation.

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Perspective | 30 Mar 2015
The (In-)Effectiveness of “Deterrence” as an Instrument Against Jihadist Terrorist Threats

In this commentary, ICCT Research Fellow Dr. Bibi van Ginkel discusses deterrence as an instrument against terrorism: does implementing new policies and laws deter potential terrorists or does this have little effect?

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Perspective | 18 Mar 2015
Understanding Instability in Libya: Will Peace Talks End the Chaos?

In this Commentary, Ms. Floor El Kamouni-Janssen and Ms. Iba Abdo discuss the complex situation in Libya.

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Perspective | 3 Mar 2015
Do-it-yourself Islam? Views on the Religious Credibility of the IS

In this opinion piece, Erwin van Veen and Iba Abdo analyse the religious credibility and message of the "Islamic State".

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Research Paper | 26 Feb 2015
Dignity and Dawn: Libya’s Escalating Civil War

This Research Paper provides a detailed examination of the armed conflict in Libya between the Operation Dignity and Libya Dawn military coalitions.

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Research Paper | 5 Feb 2015
Mali’s Long Road Ahead

The authors discuss recent military operations in Mali and warn against the temptation to treat the various jihadists as a homogenous group.

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Perspective | 22 Jan 2015
Accountability and Transparency in the United States’ Counter-Terrorism Strategy

In this Commentary, Research Fellow Jessica Dorsey responds to the recently released CIA "Torture Report" and discusses the accountability and transparency in the counter-terrorism strategy of the United States.

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Perspective | 9 Jan 2015
Paris 7-8 January: Darkness in the City of Light

In this Op-Ed, Mark Singleton discusses the downside of increased securitisation and the need for a comprehensive approach to counter-terrorism.

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Policy Brief | 24 Dec 2014
Addressing the Foreign Terrorist Fighters Phenomenon From a European Union Perspective

A Policy Brief based on the expert meeting at the European Union to discuss the implications of UN Security Council Resolution 2178 (2014) on foreign fighters and to explore responses to the threat foreign fighters pose.

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Report | 7 Nov 2014
UN Security Council Resolution 2178 (2014): Challenges and Opportunities for EU Policy

Meeting Note of an expert meeting to discuss appropriate and effective responses to the threat of Foreign Terrorist Fighters (FTFs).

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Perspective | 4 Nov 2014
About Fear, Terrorism and What is Really New

Associate Fellow Peter Knoope discusses whether the "Islamic State" group (IS) represents a new form of terrorism, one that deviates from previous terrorist organisations.

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Report | 4 Nov 2014
Practices and Reflections on Development, Security, and Peace in context of Violent Extremism and Terrorism

The side event to the UN Counter-Terrorism Strategy Review includes a short introduction of the multi-stakeholder approach to prevent and mitigate extreme violence, and closes with recommendations.

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Perspective | 4 Nov 2014
Identity Issues and Alliance Dilemmas in the Middle East

Peter Knoope discusses the potentially long term involvement of Europe in the complex conflict in Syria and Iraq.

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Perspective | 4 Nov 2014
Testing the Validity of US Self-Defence Arguments against the Khorasan Group in Syria

This Commentary tests the validity of the specific US self-defence arguments against the Khorasan group in Syria, examining both Article 51 of the UN Charter and customary international law on this issue.

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Perspective | 4 Nov 2014
The New Security Council Resolution 2178 on Foreign Terrorist Fighters: A Missed Opportunity for a Holistic Approach

This Commentary reviews the new UN Security Council Resolution 2178 (2014) on foreign terrorist fighters.

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Report | 23 Sep 2014
Developing Effective Counter-Narrative Frameworks for Countering Violent Extremism

The "Islamic State" (IS), with its violent attacks, strong uprise and even stronger media campaign, shows the need for an effective counter-narrative strategy to prevent the spread of violent extremism and radicalisation.

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Research Paper | 6 Aug 2014
Transitioning from Military Interventions to a Long-Term Counter-Terrorism Policy

The past two decades have shown that it is arguably easier to start a military intervention than to end one. In this Research Paper, Sergei Boeke looks at exit strategies from a counter-terrorism perspective.

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Policy Brief | 20 Jun 2014
Returning Western Foreign Fighters: The Case of Afghanistan, Bosnia and Somalia

In this Background Note, Jeanine de Roy van Zuijdewijn and Prof. Dr. Edwin Bakker investigate three historical cases of foreign fighting: Afghanistan (1980s), Bosnia (1990s) and Somalia (2000s).

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Perspective | 5 Jun 2014
UK Measures Rendering Terror Suspects Stateless: A Punishment More Primitive Than Torture

In the latest policy measure against the perceived threat of foreign fighters, the UK passed a law that could result in terrorism suspects becoming stateless. Dr. Christophe Paulussen and Dr. Laura van Waas analyse the bill.

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Research Paper | 12 May 2014
Violent and Non-Violent Extremism: Two Sides of the Same Coin?

This Research Paper seeks to obtain a clearer understanding of what “Islamist extremism” entails.

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Perspective | 18 Apr 2014
Terrorism Research and Government

This Commentary argues that governments should trust non-governmental actors to a greater extent with sensitive information to ensure the most informed responses to terrorism.

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Policy Brief | 10 Apr 2014
Afghan Women and the Taliban: An Exploratory Assessment

In this Policy Brief, Research Fellow Seran de Leede examines the position of women in Afghanistan towards the Taliban to a better understanding of the role of women in (countering) political violence in Afghanistan.

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Perspective | 2 Apr 2014
The Return of Europe’s Foreign Fighters

This Commentary argues that the problem of returning foreign fighters to Europe will only increase and policymakers should look towards civil society and local communities for solutions.

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Research Paper | 27 Mar 2014
Security in the Sinai: Present and Future

This Research Paper analyses the current threat emanating from the Sinai Peninsula by mapping the various violent actors and their international connections.

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Research Paper | 18 Feb 2014
Ansar al-Sharia in Tunisia’s Shift to Jihad

This Research Paper analyses the likely future of the conflict between the most significant salafi jihadist group in the country, Ansar al-Sharia in Tunisia, and the Tunisian state.

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Research Paper | 16 Jan 2014
Towards a Theory of Fear Management in the Counter-Terrorism Domain

The Paper identifies and analyses governmental approaches to managing fear in relation to terrorist incidents.

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Research Paper | 14 Jan 2014
Al Qaeda’s “Single Narrative” and Attempts to Develop Counter-Narratives

In this Research Paper efforts by governments and non-governmental bodies to challenge al Qaeda's narrative are discussed by Research Fellow Dr. Alex P. Schmid .

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Research Paper | 16 Dec 2013
Dealing with European Foreign Fighters in Syria: Governance Challenges and Legal Implications

The increasing amount of foreign fighters brings the possibility that returnees have radicalised which makes them a potential threat.

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Perspective | 3 Dec 2013
Mokhtar Belmokhtar: A Loose Cannon?

This Commentary discusses the announcement of a new jihadist organisation the Al-Mourabitoun.

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Perspective | 2 Dec 2013
The Syrian Foreign Fighters Problem: A Test Case from The Netherlands

A court in The Netherlands recently convicted two men who wanted to travel to Syria to join the jihad. This Commentary analyses the two judgements and their wider implications.

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Uncategorized | 13 Nov 2013
Supporting Curriculum Development for the Rule of Law

ICCT, together with the T.M.C. Asser Institute, drafted a guidance paper to support the curriculum development of the to be established International Institute for Justice and the Rule of Law.

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Research Paper | 14 Oct 2013
Nigeria’s Troubled North: Interrogating the Drivers of Public Support for Boko Haram

In this Research Paper, Former Visiting Fellow Akinola Olojo examines the key drivers of public support for Boko Haram in northern Nigeria.

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Perspective | 18 Sep 2013
Setting the Record Straight: Reversing the Burden of Proof Back to Normal in EU Terrorist Listing Cases

The Court of Justice of the EU made its final judgement in the case of Mr. Kadi: what does this mean for the burden of proof in placing individuals on sanctions list and for the implementation of the UN sanctions list?

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Research Paper | 23 Aug 2013
The Anders Behring Breivik Trial: Performing Justice, Defending Democracy

This Research Paper examines to what extent the Breivik trial attained the goals of criminal justice and also aims to determine if the trial contributed to the need for closure in society.

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Perspective | 20 Aug 2013
AQAP: A Local Problem, A Global Concern

Intelligence information about Al Qaeda in the Arabic Peninsula (AQAP) caused a security stir in the past weeks leading to embassy closures and evacuation of personnel in Yemen.

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Perspective | 19 Aug 2013
Al Qaeda during the Elections in Mali: The Dog that Did Not Bark

This Commentary looks at the elections and explains why various terrorist groups missed the opportunity to disrupt the democratic process in Mali.

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Policy Brief | 13 Aug 2013
The Need for a United Nations Global Counter-Terrorism Coordinator

In this Policy Brief, Dr. Howard Stoffer emphasises the need for a global UN Counter-Terrrorism Coordinator to oversee the smooth and efficient running of all UN counter-terrorism related activities.

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Perspective | 24 Jul 2013
The End of Radicalisation?

Following the Boston Marathon and Woolwich attacks in 2013, some commentators proclaimed the end of the concept of radicalisation as the root cause for terrorism. Dr. Alex Schmid takes a closer look at this claim.

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Perspective | 18 Jul 2013
Terrorism in North Africa After Benghazi: The Jihadist Regional Outlook

What implication has the Arab Spring had on jihadist movements in northern Africa? Daveed Gartenstein-Ross looks at regional developments and the relationship between countries of dawa (missionary work) and lands of jihad.

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Policy Brief | 27 Jun 2013
Moving Terrorism Research Forward: The Crucial Role of Primary Sources

Conducting empirical research in the field of terrorism is not an easy task: gaining access to police files, interviewing (former) terrorists or accessing intelligence information can be arduous.

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Perspective | 24 Jun 2013
Engendering Counter-Terrorism in Northern Nigeria

This Commentary examines the role of women in the ongoing conflict in Northern Nigeria.

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Research Paper | 28 May 2013
Ansar al-Sharia Tunisia’s Long Game: Dawa, Hisba and Jihad

Associate Fellow Dr. Daveed Gartenstein-Ross examines the activities, organisation and possible future of Tunisia's largest salafi jihadist organisation: Ansar al-Sharia Tunisia (AST).

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Perspective | 23 May 2013
Mediation, Bounties and Amnesty for Boko Haram: A Deadlock of Priorities

This Commentary discusses the available options in Nigeria and the contradictions of state policy thus far.

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Perspective | 23 May 2013
Creating a Police State Mentality? Stronger Visual Surveillance of Public Places after the Boston Bombings

During the first US Congressional hearing on the Boston bombings and in media reports, Boston’s police commissioner, Mr. Edward F. Davis III, advocated for stronger visual monitoring of public spaces.

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Report | 9 May 2013
Additional Guidance on the Role of Psychologists/Psychology in Rehabilitation Programmes

This Meeting Note reports on the expert workshop on The Role of Psychology in Rehabilitation and Reintegration of Violent Extremist Offenders, which was convened together with the Hedayah centre.

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Report, Research Paper | 16 Apr 2013
Boundaries of the Battlefield: A Critical Look at the Legal Paradigms and Rules in Countering Terrorism

This Research Paper is a detailed report of a two-day symposium by the same title, which was convened in The Hague in January 2013.

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Perspective | 10 Apr 2013
Destination Jihad: Why Syria and not Mali

This Commentary analyses the exodus of young European jihadists that are inundating Western intelligence services.

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Research Paper | 27 Mar 2013
Radicalisation, De-Radicalisation, Counter-Radicalisation: A Conceptual Discussion and Literature Review

Based on an in-depth literature review, Research Fellow Dr. Alex P. Schmid explores the terms "radicalisation", "de-radicalisation" and "counter-radicalisation" and the discourses surrounding them in greater detail.

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Perspective | 21 Mar 2013
Ansar al-Sharia Tunisia’s International Connections

The strategy of the most prominent jihadist organisation in Tunisia, Ansar-al-Sharia Tunisia (AST), has thus far mainly focussed on dawa (missionary work) instead of violent acts.

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Policy Brief | 20 Mar 2013
The Nexus between Security and Development

Research Fellow Dr. Bibi van Ginkel and Clingendael Senior Research Fellow Ivan Briscoe analyse the relationship between the development and counter-terrorism sectors in light of the changing nature of terrorism.

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Perspective | 13 Mar 2013
Mali and the Narco-Terrorists

In the Francophone press, jihadists and rebels in Northern Mali are frequently referred to as "narco-terrorists". This Commentary discusses the use of such terminology and its implications.

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Research Paper | 25 Feb 2013
The Need for More & Structural Data Analysis in Detention and Rehabilitation of Extremist Offenders

The authors suggest that increased and structural data analysis is essential to produce evidence-based policies that are tailored to countering violent extremism.

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Perspective | 19 Dec 2012
A Long Journey to Justice: El-Masri and the First Case against the Practice of Extra-ordinary Renditions

The first judgement against a state (Macedonia) for its involvement in the CIA's extra-ordinary rendition programme was handed down earlier this week. Dr. Bibi van Ginkel analyses the implications of the ECHR judgement.

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Perspective | 20 Nov 2012
The Real Risk of Torture Testimony in Terror Trials: The Case of Abu Qatada

Last week's decision against the extradition of Muslim cleric Abu Qatada in the UK was a controversial one. What does the case mean for evidence obtained by torture, human rights, extradition and anticipatory justice?

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Perspective | 15 Nov 2012
Beware of High Hopes: Counterterrorism and the Negotiation Paradox

In their Commentary, Bart Schuurman and Dr. Isabelle Duyvesteyn examine peace negotiations in conflicts between governments and terrorist organisations.

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Perspective | 23 Oct 2012
The Declining Legitimacy of the Pakistan Taliban

In this Commentary, former Director Peter Knoope argues that the shooting of Malala Yousafzai by the Pakistani Taliban further decreases its legitimacy.

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Perspective | 12 Sep 2012
The 22nd of July Trial Reaches its Final Stage

What is the impact of the final verdict in the Anders Behring Breivik trial? How does it affect the coping mechanisms in society and are the goals of criminal justice achieved?

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Research Paper | 30 Aug 2012
Towards the Intelligent Use of Intelligence: Quis Custodiet ipsos Custodes?

Dr. Bibi van Ginkel examines the role of the exchange of intelligence between states, the applicable human rights framework, and the dilemmas involved.

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Research Paper | 28 Aug 2012
Testing the Adequacy of the International Legal Framework in Countering Terrorism: The War Paradigm

In this Research Paper, Dr. Christophe Paulussen explores whether the current international legal framework is sufficiently equipped to effectively deal with the threat of terrorism and counter-terrorism practices.

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Research Paper | 25 Aug 2012
Engaging Civil Society in Countering Violent Extremism

In this Research Paper Dr. Bibi van Ginkel takes an in depth look at how multi-lateral institutions engage with civil society to counter violent extremism.

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Research Paper | 17 Aug 2012
Strengthening the Role of Victims and Incorporating Victims in Efforts to Counter Violent Extremism and Terrorism

Following terrorist attacks, governments are often quick to express their solidarity with victims but as the memory of a terrorist atrocity fades, attention for the victims also ebbs away – in both government and society.

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Perspective | 9 Aug 2012
Terrorism Prevention as Situational Crime Prevention

In the latest Commentary, Dr. Alex Schmid argues that exploring the utility of situational crime prevention - widely used in the field of criminology - maybe the future of terrorism prevention.

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Perspective | 26 Jul 2012
Al Qaeda Plot in Europe? Intelligence as Evidence in the Düsseldorf Terror Cell Trial

This Commentary discusses the trial against four terror suspects of the so-called Düsseldorf terror cell.

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Research Paper | 19 Jul 2012
Forecasting the Unpredictable: A Review of Forecasts on Terrorism 2000 – 2012

The Research Paper aims to provide a general review of publications on the future of terrorism by academics, think tanks and government agencies over the past ten years.

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Research Paper | 25 Jun 2012
Blind Spot? Security Narratives and Far-Right Violence in Europe

This Research Paper discusses the challenges of countering far-Right political violence.

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Research Paper | 21 Jun 2012
Through the Militant Lens: The Power of Ideology and Narratives

This Research Paper explores violent extremist “narratives” within the Indonesian context by interviewing a convicted terrorist and one currently undergoing trial.

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Perspective | 12 Jun 2012
Countering Violent Extremism: a Promising Response to Terrorism

In early April 2012, the first conference of the Working Group for Countering Violent Extremism was attended by representatives from the 29 countries which are part of the Global Counter-Terrorism Forum.

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Perspective | 23 Apr 2012
The Anti-Islamist: Anders Behring Breivik’s Manifesto

In this Commentary, 2012 Visiting Research Fellow Dr. Arun Kundnani analyses Breivik's ideology as contained in his 1,500-page manifesto, 2083 – A European Declaration of Independence.

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Perspective | 18 Apr 2012
Anders Breivik: A Terrorist on Trial

This Commentary analyses the trial against Anders Behring Breivik, the Norwegian violent extremist who carried out bomb and gun attacks that left 77 people dead last year.

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Research Paper | 2 Apr 2012
Impunity for International Terrorists? Key Legal Questions and Practical Considerations

This Research Paper discusses several of the key questions related to the subject of impunity of international terrorists, taking both a fundamental and a more practical approach within the context of international law.

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Perspective | 28 Mar 2012
Intelligence Failures in France? The Complex Reality of Information Sharing

In the aftermath of the terrible attacks in Southern France, French intelligence agencies are facing calls for an investigation into alleged intelligence failures.

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Perspective | 16 Mar 2012
The US NDAA and its Controversial Counter-Terrorism Provisions

This Commentary reviews Sections 1021 and 1022 of the "National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2012" (NDAA 2012) – probably the act’s most controversial counter-terrorism provisions.

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Perspective | 12 Mar 2012
The Internet as Hiding Place of Jihadi Extremists

It is no secret that violent extremists – whether Jihadists or Neo-Nazis – make intensive use of the internet as a platform for discussion, planning, propaganda and recruitment. Dr. Bibi van Ginkel discusses different approaches to counter this.

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Perspective | 5 Mar 2012
Containing al Qaeda in Africa

In recent years commentators have begun to suggest that Africa will be the next haven for al Qaeda, with al Shabaab, al Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb and Boko Haram all having affiliations with al Qaeda in varying degrees.

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Research Paper | 2 Mar 2012
Designing Rehabilitation and Reintegration Programmes for Violent Extremist Offenders: A Realist Approach

In this Research Paper, Dr. Tinka Veldhuis makes an argument for a Realist approach to rehabilitation and reintegration programmes for violent extremist offenders in prison.

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Policy Brief | 20 Feb 2012
A Fear Management Approach to Counter-Terrorism

In this Policy Brief, Research Fellows Prof. Dr. Edwin Bakker and Dr. Tinka Veldhuis explore the dynamics of fear in response to terrorism.

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Perspective | 10 Feb 2012
Strategic Re-Orientation Underlined by Two New International Counter-Terrorism Initiatives

Ten years after 9/11, we seem to be witnessing an important turning point in the strategic thinking about counter-terrorism policies and measures.

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Research Paper | 2 Feb 2012
Counter-Terrorism, Technology and Transparency: Reconsidering State Accountability

In this Discussion Paper, Dr. Quirine Eijkman discusses the use of surveillance, storage of personal information, biometrics, satellite technology and other forms of ICT technology used in the fight against terrorism and the risks that come along with them.

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Perspective | 8 Nov 2011
Surveillance Cameras against Terrorism: Is More Accountability Required?

Since 9/11 and the London and Madrid bombings a wide variety counter-terrorism measures have been taken, including the implementation of many technical tools.

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Research Paper | 2 Aug 2011
Incitement to Terrorism: A Matter of Prevention or Repression?

Dr. Bibi van Ginkel analyses the relevant research and policy question related to the criminalisation of incitement to terrorism.

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Perspective | 29 Jul 2011
Lone Wolves and their Enabling Environment

In this Commentary, Dr. Beatrice de Graaf and Eelco Kessels MA emphasise that, although we might label Anders B. Breivik a lone wolf, he certainly does not perceive himself to be a loner operating in complete isolation.

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Perspective | 28 Jul 2011
A Fair and Public Trial for the Norwegian Terror Suspect

The trial of Anders Behring Breivik posed many questions, one of them being if the hearings should be in public or behind closed doors.

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Perspective | 26 Jul 2011
The Picture of Terrorism in Europe after the Norway Attacks: Terrorist Threat Remains High and Diverse

The incorrect, one-sided and partly over-optimistic picture of "the" terrorist as a Muslim male connected to al Qaeda was smashed to pieces by the deadly attacks in Norway, Prof Dr. Edwin Bakker argues in this Commentary. Terrorism in Europe is – and always has been – a very diverse phenomenon.

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Research Paper | 2 Jul 2011
Preventive Counter-Terrorism Measures and Non-Discrimination in the European Union: The Need for Systematic Evaluation

This study briefly discusses the concept of preventive counter‐terrorism, after which it will go on to consider the use of preventive counter‐terrorism measures in the EU as well as their potential discriminatory side‐effects.

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Perspective | 1 Jul 2011
Towards a Population-Centric Strategy: Indonesian Experience in Countering Islamist Radicalism and Terrorism

In this guest Commentary, Dr. Noorhaidi Hasan looks at terrorism and violent extremism developments in Indonesia, as well as the government's policies.

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Perspective | 4 May 2011
The Death of Mastermind Osama bin Laden: Whose Justice?

In his statement, US President Barack Obama stipulated that the targeted operation he authorised was aimed at bringing Osama bin Laden “to justice”.

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Perspective | 4 May 2011
The End of an Age of Terror? The Death of Osama bin Laden

After its irrelevance in the Arab Spring and the death of its iconic and unifying leader and the lack of a strong successor with similar stature is the ultimate blow to al Qaeda.

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Perspective | 6 Apr 2011
Not Very Inspiring: Al Qaeda’s Reaction to the ‘Tsunami of Change’ in the Middle East

Shaykh Anwar Al-Awlaki in the Islamist Glossy "Inspire Magazine", is on the defence, trying desperately to convince his readers – and probably himself – of his interpretation of the events unfolding.

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Uncategorized | 15 Mar 2011
Terrorists on Trial: A Performative Perspective

On 30 March 2011, ICCT hosted an Expert Meeting applied a performative perspective to three well known and recent trials in different parts of the world.

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Perspective | 3 Mar 2011
Al Qaeda’s Final Dance: a Deadly Tango for Two

The popular uprisings in Northern Africa and the Middle East are showing us, professionals involved in the field of counter-terrorism, and our politicians the best way forward in our struggle against political violence.

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Research Paper | 2 Mar 2011
Compatible or Incompatible? Intelligence and Human Rights in Terrorist Trials

This Research Paper focuses on the special procedures of Canada, France, the Netherlands and the UK for the use of intelligence in terrorism-related court cases.

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Research Paper | 12 Feb 2011
Why Communication and Performance are Key in Countering Terrorism

In this Research Paper, Prof. Dr. Beatrice de Graaf emphasises the importance of effective communication and performance in the fight against terrorism and the fear it aims to induce.

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Research Paper | 3 Feb 2011
Report ICCT International Launch Conference

Over 200 high-level international experts from various governments, counter-terrorism agencies, academic institutions and NGOs gathered to discuss the status of counter-terrorism.

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Research Paper | 2 Feb 2011
Joint Investigation Teams: Added Value, Opportunities and Obstacles in the Struggle against Terrorism

This Research Paper is an updated version of the discussion paper that was prepared for the ICCT Expert Meeting on ‘Joint Investigation Teams: Added Value, Opportunities and Obstacles in the Struggle against Terrorism’.

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Perspective | 31 Jan 2011
Why the People of Tunisia and Egypt Confirm the Bankruptcy of al Qaeda’s Tactics

There is one profound conclusion missing in most of the news reports and expert opinions analysing the political, social and/or historical reasons for and consequences of the events taking place in Egypt and Tunisia.

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Perspective | 24 Jan 2011
Kadi-Judgement Revisited: Shaken, not Stirred

In this Commentary, Dr. Bibi van Ginkel analyses the proceedings of the Kadi trial and the impact of the most recent ruling.

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Perspective | 24 Dec 2010
The Dutch Hofstad Group: A Terrorist Organisation after All?

Dr. Quirine Eijkman analyses the retrial and discusses the consequences of the verdict for counter-terrorism measures.

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Perspective | 20 Dec 2010
Legal Reforms and Counter-Terrorism: Without Public Support, Changing the Rules Can Be Costly

In this Commentary, Bart Schuurman argues that legislation specifically designed to address terrorism-related violence is a powerful instrument that governments can use in the struggle against violent extremism.

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Research Paper | 2 Nov 2010
Lone Wolves: How to Prevent this Phenomenon?

In this Research Paper Prof. Dr. Edwin Bakker and Prof. Dr. Beatrice de Graaf examine the rise of terrorist acts perpetrated by individuals.

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Perspective | 2 Oct 2010
The Sting Within; Understanding the Effects of Terror

In a new Commentary, Dr. Mark Dechesne, Senior Researcher at Campus The Hague / Leiden University explores the effects of terrorist attacks. What does terrorism do to people? What happens if people are terrorised?

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Perspective | 17 Sep 2010
9/11 Nine Years On

The Commentary tries to explain the reasons for the (delayed) outburst of anti-Islamic emotions and demonstrations in various parts of the world.

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Perspective | 9 Aug 2010
Terrorists and the Rule of Law: Member of Hofstad Group Expresses Faith in Dutch Judicial System

This Commentary analyses the recent announcement of a convicted member of the Dutch jihadist Hofstad group, who stated that he from now on accepts the judicial system and is certain that he will receive a fair trial.

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Perspective | 19 Jul 2010
Will the Appointment of an Ombudsperson Improve the Due Process Standards of the Heavily Criticised UN Terrorist Listing and De-listing Procedure?

This Commentary analyses whether the appointment of an ombudsperson pursuant to Security Council Resolution 1904 will in fact improve the due process standards of the UN terrorist listing and de-listing procedure.

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Perspective | 9 Jun 2010
Decrease in Global Terrorism Threat: Now Look for Means to Sustain It

In the first ICCT Commentary, Prof. Dr. Edwin Bakker reflects upon the conclusions by Insurance Company Aon that counter-terrorism efforts have caused a decrease in the global terrorism threat level.

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Research Paper | 2 Mar 2010
Use of Diplomatic Assurances in Terrorism-related Cases: In search of a Balance between Security Concerns and Human Rights

Dr. Bibi van Ginkel and Federico Rojas analyse the different policies on diplomatic assurances in countries that are representative of a trend and clarify the criteria that have to be fulfilled before assurance may be used.

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