Fransje Molenaar was formerly a Senior Research Fellow with Clingendael’s Conflict Research Unit. She is specialized in the human smuggling industry in Africa, with a particular focus on the Sahel and Libya.
Caulier, T. and Molenaar, F. Acteurs Coutumiers dans un Contexte Singulier: Le Cas de la Région du Centre-Nord au Burkina Faso. Report, The International Centre for Counter-Terrorism, Clingendael, and USAID, 02 March 2022
Caulier, T. and Molenaar, F. Customary Characters in Uncustomary Circumstances: The Case of Burkina Faso’s Centre-Nord Region. Report, The International Centre for Counter-Terrorism, Clingendael, and USAID, 02 March 2022
This Policy Brief outlines several approaches that can be adopted by U.S. policymakers to address the challenges posed by militia violent extremist groups.